Expansionism largely refers to the doctrine of a state expanding its territorial base or economic influence. This occurs usually, though not necessarily, by means of military aggression.

Expansionism is a growing trend in both rising and declining global powers like China and Russia. Expansionism refers to policies implemented by governments and states that involve territorial expansion through economic or political coercion and military force.


Reconceptualizing Acts of Foreign Aggression

Adversarial powers like Russia view "active measures" in the West as integral to their military doctrine. The current state of affairs between the U.S.-led West and Russia increasingly seems like a second "Cold war.” However, this is a misstatement. Western institutions and social discourse have been caught almost entirely off-guard by the…