Russian Information Warfare and Interference in the 2016 U.S. Election

The creation and dissemination of misinformation and disinformation—‘fake news’—is a vital component of the Russian information warfare offensive strategy.

Russian Information Warfare (informatsionaya voyna) is rooted in Soviet thinking, dating back to the beginning of the Cold War in the form of spetspropaganda (special propaganda). Information warfare includes computer network operations, electronic warfare, psychological operations, and information operations.

The 2010 Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation says that these measures are implemented “to achieve political objectives without the utilization of military force.” In contrast to Soviet propaganda—which the regime went to great lengths to proclaim as the truth—modern Russian information warfare does not prioritize this, modern information warfare seeks to plant seeds of doubt and distrust; to confuse, distract, polarize and demoralize.

Accordingly, the creation and dissemination of misinformation, disinformation; what has commonly become known as ‘fake news,’ is a vital component of the Russian information warfare offensive strategy.

Diversionary Tactics in Russian Foreign Policy

A leader’s best friend is a chaotic and unstable world system when domestic troubles are aplenty. Instead of examining how domestic policies are impacting the health and social structure of a society, it’s usually in the best interest of a president or prime minister to turn the attention of their country to something outside. This policy is known…