Adversarial powers like Russia view “active measures” in the West as integral to their military doctrine.
Western institutions and social discourse have been caught almost entirely off-guard by the Kremlin’s strategic exploitation of our rigid military taxonomy. Russia has been unilaterally engaged in a nuanced war of contradictions and weaponized information. In short, Russia and the U.S. maintain fundamentally different definitions of the very concept of war. How did this happen?